Alisha Graves

Population and climate change: who will the grand convergence leave behind?

For many developing countries, investments in health have proved a great success. The LancetCommission “Global health 2035: a world converging within a generation”1 and the 2014 Gates annual letter2 envision the possibility of a “grand convergence” by which more countries will have a child mortality rate as low as 15 per 1000 livebirths in 20 years time. We wish to draw attention to the special case of the least developed countries, which on present evidence are likely to be excluded from such a convergence.

Population and Climate Change: Empowering 100 Million Women

Meeting the world’s need for family planning is a human right and a climate imperative. Wherever women have been given information and access to family planning, birth rates have fallen – even in poor, low-literate societies like Bangladesh or conservative religious countries such as Iran.

"Big issues deserve bold responses" Les grandes questions meritent des responses audacieuses: la population et le changement climatique au Sahel

Parts of Africa have the most rapid population growth in the world. Recent studies by climatologists suggest that, in coming decades, ecologically vulnerable areas of Africa, including the Sahel will be exposed to the harshest adverse effects of global warming. The threat hanging over parts of sub-Saharan Africa is extreme. Fortunately, there are evidence-based achievable policies which can greatly ameliorate what would otherwise be a slowly unfolding catastrophe of stunning magnitude. But to succeed such measures must be taken immediately and on a large scale.

Big issues deserve bold responses: Population and climate change in the Sahel

Parts  of  Africa  have  the  most  rapid  population growth in the world. Recent studies by climatologists  suggest  that,  in  coming  decades, ecologically vulnerable areas of Africa, including the Sahel will be exposed to the harshest adverse effects of global warming. The threat hanging over parts of sub-Saharan Africa is extreme. Fortunately,  there are evidence-based achievable policies which can greatly ameliorate what would otherwise  be  a  slowly  unfolding  catastrophe  of stunning magnitude. But to succeed such measures must be taken immediately and on a large scale.

Avoidable maternal deaths: Three ways to help now

The current paper examines the realities of women delivering in resource-poor settings, and recommends cost-effective, scalable strategies for making these deliveries safer. Ninety-five percent of maternal deaths occur in poor settings, and the largest proportion of these deaths are women who deliver at home, far away from health care facilities, and without financial access to skilled providers. This situation will improve only when policymakers and programme planners refocus their attention on service delivery and financing interventions, with the potential to reach the largest portion of women living in places where mortality is the highest. We suggest three feasible interventions that can potentially minimise both demand and supply side problems of safe delivery: (1) misoprostol to treat postpartum haemorrhage, an easy to use and heat stable technology to reduce the leading cause of maternal deaths; (2) alternative providers, such as clinical officers, trained to offer emergency obstetric care services; (3) financing safe delivery through vouchers or other mechanisms that can be implemented in poor settings and made attractive to the donor community through output-based assistance (OBA).

Keywords: postpartum haemorrhage; maternal mortality; safe delivery; vouchers; misoprostol

Published In Global Public Health, Volume 4, Issue 6 November 2009 , pages 575 – 587